Област на знанието: Наука и знание (общи въпроси). Наукознание. Организация на умствения труд
Interim evaluation of Horizon 2020 : Societal challenge 2: food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy : expert group report, 2018.
This report is the Thematic Annex of Societal Challenge 2 (SC2):Food Security, Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, Marine, Maritime and Inland Water Research, and the Bioeconomy, to the Interim Evaluation of Horizon 2020 and it is based on the final report of the Expert Group for SC2 Interim Evaluation. It critically examines the rationale, design and current state of implementation of the programme and presents the SC2 Expert GroupТs assessment of the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, EU added-value and coherence of the programme. Although all of these evaluation criteria are covered by the evaluation, given the early stages of programme implementation and considering that limited evidence on actual outputs and results is available, this report focuses on design and implementation issues, relevance and coherence,. Moreover, it should be noted that this Report focuses on the projects funded through the main SC2 calls. This evaluation does not examine the SME instrument and the BBI-JU in detail as these topics are the subject of two, parallel, ongoing evaluations. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: продоволствена сигурност ; устойчиво земеделие – научни изследвания
A conventional guide to scientific writing will be concerned inter alia with such things as terminology, units and figures and diagrams. These are all necessary to good scientific writing. This book however is not so focused. It draws on history of science and on philosophy to give the reader sufficient background on these to provide him or her with ideas and insights which will be an aid to good writing. At the beginning of the book selected writings by Nobel Laureates are held up as examples, and this is followed by a discussion of logic, in the formal sense of that word in philosophy, as it relates to scientific writing. The matter of popularisation of science follows, and some eminent writers of popular science are quoted from. Scientific etymology and the use of figures of speech follow. (из Предговор)
Предметни рубрики: академично писане
Област на знанието: Икономика. Икономически науки
This latest edition of global wine statistics not only updates data to 2016 but also adds another century of data. The motivation to assemble those historical data was to enable comparisons between the current and the previous globalization waves. This unique database reveals that, even though Europe's vineyards were devastated by vine diseases and the pest phylloxera from the 1860s, most New World countries remained net importers of wine until late in the nineteenth century. Some of the world's leading wine economists and historians have contributed to and drawn on this database to examine the development of national wine market developments before, during and in between the two waves of globalization. (издателят)
Предметни рубрики: вино – пазари – статистика – света
Building sustainable resilience for food security and livelihood dynamics is explored using the Ethiopia Rural Household Survey panel data. Household resilience scores are derived from measures taken to protect against shocks. The impact of several demographic and socio-economic factors on resilience dynamics is then tested. The result shows that the experience of resilience in the past leads to a subsequent higher chance of continuing to be resilient (true state-dependence). It also demonstrates that measures that promote asset creation, diversified enterprises and access to improved technologies are positively and significantly correlated with dynamics of building resilience for food security. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: продоволствена сигурност – Етиопия
Hall, C. Michael и др. Wine Marketing: a practical guide, 2008.
The book is designed to provide practical insights into the marketing of wine. However, this does not mean that the book is without theory. Applying the old adage from Kurt Lewin that there is nothing so practical as a good theory (Lewin, 1951, p. 169) the book has utilised some of the recent developments in marketing theory and application with respect to ideas of co-creation, service, value and value chains, experiences and relationships. The book is also shaped differently from many other marketing texts in that while the various Ps of marketing are noted we emphasise how they – and other marketing concepts – apply differentially along the wine distribution and value chains. (из Предисловие)
Предметни рубрики: вино – маркетинг
In 2015, the European Commission launched an initiative entitled 'The EU budget focused on results'. It is aimed at changing spending culture and making results a horizontal priority for the EU budget. The initiative is based on a popular contemporary budgeting method known as 'performance budgeting'. This paper presents the method and its application to the EU budget. It explains why, although not easy to implement, performance budgeting is seen as an attractive way to increase value for money and enhance the transparency and democratic accountability of public finances. The paper also analyses how the performance budgeting approach has evolved within the EU budgetary system and what challenges and obstacles to its implementation remain. The commitment of the European Commission to the principles of performance budgeting, as well as the broad support for the idea expressed by the European Parliament and the Council, give grounds to believe that these efforts will continue in the post-2020 Multiannual Financial Framework. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: бюджет – Европейски съюз
Област на знанието: Образование
European Commission, Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture. Developing digital youth work : policy recommendations and training needs for youth workers and decision-makers : expert group set up under the European Union Work Plan for Youth for 2016-2018, 2018.
Set up under the European Union Work Plan for Youth 2016-2018, the expert group on Risks, opportunities and implications of digitalisation for youth, youth work and youth policy provides policy recommendations, training needs and good practice examples in developing digital youth work across the EU. This publication contains the following outcomes of this expert group: A working definition of digital youth work; Policy recommendations on the development of digital youth work; Identification of training needs of youth workers relevant for digital youth work, based on existing competence frameworks for digital skills and for youth work. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: образование – дигитална грамотност – младежи
Област на знанието: Наука за околната среда. Опазване на природните ресурси. Природна среда и опасност от нарушаване на равновесието в нея
JRC produced reference lists of species and habitats for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), following the recommendations listed in the COM DEC 2017/848/EU and shared them with the marine biodiversity experts proposed by the EU Member States, for their evaluation. This task is part of the mandate to JRC (GES_18-2017-03) to facilitate Member States data entry, as part of the MSFD reporting obligations, in the EEA reporting web-forms, while increasing consistency and harmonization across Member States. The scope of this technical report is: i) to describe the methodology applied for the synthesis of the reference lists; ii) to provide directions to the experts to evaluate and update them; iii) to provide Member States with the possibility to consult the reference lists (embedded in this document) for any future MSFD related task. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: биоразнообразие – морски екосистеми ; рибни ресурси – риболовни зони – устойчиво рибарство
Област на знанието: Хидросфера. Вода (общи въпроси). Хидрология
Процесът на разработване на национален план за влажните зони не е изрично регламентиран в националното законодателство, затова изпълнителят се придържа към възприетите практики за изработване на национални стратегически и планови документи, както и към нормите, възприети в Глава пета на Закона за опазване на околната среда. Настоящата актуализация се осъществява в рамките на проект Живот за Бургаските езера (LIFE08/NAT/BG/000277), финансиран по Програма LIFEплюс на ЕС и изпълняван от Българско дружество за защита на птиците (БДЗП) в партньорство с Българска Фондация Биоразнообразие (БФБ), Черноморски солници АД, Кралското дружество за защита на птиците и Община Бургас. Анализът на влажните зони включва техни основни географски, физически и екологични характеристики, консервационна значимост, заплахи и тенденции, стопански ползвания, препоръки, мерки, екосистемни функции, икономическо и социално значение. На база на анализа са определени хоризонтални и специфични мерки, които да бъдат реализирани в 10-годишния период на изпълнение на плана. (Министерство на околната среда и водите)
Предметни рубрики: влажни зони – България – опазване
Област на знанието: Материални основи на живота. Биохимия. Молекулярна биология. Биофизика
The micro- and nano- transport of biomolecules is of interest to a wide range of scientific and engineering communities. Application areas include miniaturized technology that will support and advance key sectors, including healthcare, food provisioning, environment services, etc. This ebook is generally intended for undergraduate students from chemical, life and physical sciences wanting to find out about the basic properties of biomolecules and how they can be transported in liquids on the micro- to nano-scale. The e-book tends to be oriented towards engineering aspects, especially with the transport of biomolecules in micro-devices powered electrically. It is hoped it will also be useful for interdisciplinary researchers surveying the field of biomolecule transport. Much of the book can be read with no more than high school level of science and mathematics and selected areas that require engineering mathematics can be omitted if need be. (из Предговор)
Предметни рубрики: биомолекули – транспорт ; молекулярна биология – нанотехнологии
Event-specific method for the quantification of soybean line 40-3-2 using real-time PCR : validation report and protocolrReport on the validation of a DNA extraction method for soybean seeds : corrected version 1, 2017.
The JRC as Community Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (CRL-GMFF), established by Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, in collaboration with the European Network of GMO Laboratories (ENGL), has carried out a collaborative study to assess the performance of a quantitative event-specific method to detect and quantify the 40-3-2 transformation event in soybean DNA (unique identifier MON-4 32-6). The collaborative trial was conducted according to internationally accepted guidelines (1, 2). In accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed and with Regulation (EC) No 641/2004 of 6 April 2004 on detailed rules for the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, Monsanto provided the detection method and the samples (soybean seeds containing the transformation event and conventional soybean seeds). The JRC prepared the validation samples (calibration samples and blind samples at unknown GM percentage [DNA/DNA]). The collaborative trial involved fourteen laboratories from nine European countries. The results of the international collaborative trial met the ENGL performance requirements and the scientific understanding about satisfactory method performance. Therefore, the CRL-GMFF considers the method validated as fit for the purpose of regulatory compliance. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: фуражни растения – соя – приложна генетика
Област на знанието: Ветеринарна медицина
The viruses that cause Zika (ZIK), Dengue (DEN), Chikungunya (CHIK) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) belong to the same virus family. ZIK, DEN and CHIK are transmitted by mosquitoes, and TBE is transmitted by ticks. Mosquitoes are responsible for the spread of human diseases such as Dengue fever, Chikungunya and some neurological disorders, while ticks are responsible for the spread of encephalitis. Once infected with the virus, the most common symptoms are usually mild and characterised by fever, skin rash, joint pains and conjunctivitis. In May 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection occurred in Brazil with an estimated total of up to 1.3 million of ZIKV infection cases. This event caught the attention of scientists, the media and the public, and raised awareness of the risk of underestimating mosquito-carried disease and the need to mitigate the spread of the virus by operating at multiple levels (i.e. developing vaccines, mapping the distribution of mosquitoes, and controlling their habitats). This report provides the public with four pillars of information. The first (chapters 1-3) gives general information about the vectors, viruses and the detection methods, and the second (chapter 4) gives the most recent literature data about their distribution, particularly in Europe. The third (chapter 5) is mainly focused on ZIKV, and compares the recent extensive media attention given to this with the scientific results, in order to avoid the spread of fake news (incorrect scientific news). Finally, the fourth pillar (chapter 6) describes mosquito control strategies, which includes several tactics for limiting the spread of mosquitoes and monitoring their habitats. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: животни – инфекциозни болести – профилактика
Област на знанието: Обща енергетика
The energy sector accounts for the lion's share (55 percents) of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union (EU). While EU emissions had fallen by 22.1 percents in 2015 compared with 1990, and continue to fall, the blocÒs economy grew by 27 percents over that period. Since the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) entered into force, use of renewables has continued to grow in the 3 EU sectors that consume most energy (electricity, heating/ cooling and transport). This has done much to cut emissions. While the renewable share in gross final energy consumption rose from 12.4 percents in 2009 to almost 17 percents in 2015, the EU GHG emissions savings through renewables rose year-on-year by an annual average of 9 percents. Fossil fuels are increasingly being displaced by renewables. The displacement between 1990 and 2015 amounted to 139 Mtoe equal to 11.5 percents of the gross inland consumption of fossil fuels. The electricity sector accounted for almost 40 percents of this displacement, with rapidly growing new technologies such as wind and photovoltaics accounting for almost 18 percents of total fossil fuel displacement. Without renewable energy sources, total emissions in the EU would have been 8.7 percents higher in 2009, 13.8 percents higher in 2014 and 14.4 percents higher in 2015. This report represents an integrated analysis and provides: a concise overview of carbon dioxide (CO2) and aggregated emissions (in both the ETS and the ESD sectors), including recent trends in the EU as a whole, and in individual EU countries; an assessment of the role played by renewables in mitigating climate change in the EU and individual countries between 2009 and 2014; and a proxy estimate of emissions savings through the use of renewables in 2015. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: възобновяеми енергийни източници – Европейски съюз
Област на знанието: Животновъдство
The European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL-FA), hosted by the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate General of the European Commission, has been mandated by the Directorate General for Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE) to organise a proficiency test (PT) among appointed National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) in the frame of its control activities (according to the Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 ). The aim of this PT was to assess the capacity of the NRLs to correctly determine selected authorised coccidiostats added to feed matrices at realistic authorised levels and at cross-contamination levels. Thirty-six European National and Official Control laboratories were invited and twenty-nine laboratories registered to the 2017 PT exercise. Twenty-five of the registered laboratories reported results for the analyses. The test items used in this exercise were produced by the JRC. Purchased commercial poultry compound feed, tested by the EURL-FA Control as being blank for the target analytes, was milled and ground and then spiked with the required coccidiostat standard solution or with the relevant authorised feed additive. The first item was spiked with a standard solution containing monensin, narasin and diclazuril, at cross-contamination level (MAT 1). The second test item (MAT 2) was spiked with an authorised feed additive Maxiban, containing narasin (narasin AL) and nicarbazin, at additive level. MAT 1 and MAT 2 were subsequently homogenised and distributed in glass bottles. All bottles were labelled ensuring a random number encoding and dispatched to all registered participants on 27 June 2017. Laboratories were informed of the composition of the test material regarding the composition in coccidiostats for MAT 2 and had therefore only to quantify the content. For MAT 1 the laboratories had to screen for the presence of all 11 authorised coccidiostats and to quantify the detected ones. (Publications Office of the European Union)
Предметни рубрики: фуражи – анализ – методика ; добавки – кокцидиостатици
Feed evaluation science, 2018.
Written by a team of international authorities, Feed Evaluation Science, is a must-have for students, researchers, postdoctoral fellows and teachers of animal nutrition, as well as practitioners in the feed industry. The text offers a classical treatment of the basic principles and new developments in feed evaluation for simple-stomached animals with emphasis on pigs and poultry. The chapters follow a logical progression, to provide a coherent in-depth coverage of the key science and technology inherent in the nutrition and feeding of animals. The topics covered are nutrient analysis and characterisation, nutrient-bioavailability, post-absorptive nutrient utilisation, the principles of animal growth and the mathematical modelling of growth. Practical aspects of feed processing, anti-nutritional factors, the use of markers in nutrition studies, predicting bioavailable nutrients and the principles of feed formulation are highlighted in the context of pig, poultry and companion animal nutrition. This is a classic text on the nutrition of simple-stomached animals, and is intended for those working at the forefront of developments in feed evaluation science. (издателят)
Предметни рубрики: фуражи – анализ
INRA feeding system for ruminants, 2018.
The INRA Feeding System for Ruminants has been renewed to better address emerging challenges for animal nutrition: prevision of productive responses, product quality, animal health and emissions to the environment, in a larger extent of breeding contexts. The new system is mainly built from meta-analyses of large data bases, and modelling. The dietary supply model accounts for digestive interactions and flows of individual nutrients, so that feed values depend on the final ration. Animal requirements account for variability in metabolic efficiency. Various productive and non-productive animal responses to diets are quantified. This book presents the whole system for dairy and meat, large and small ruminant production, including specificities for tropical and Mediterranean areas. The first two sections present biological concepts and equations (with their field of application and statistical accuracy) used to predict intake (including at grazing) and nutrient supply (Section 1), animal's requirements and multiple responses to diets (Section 2). They apply to net energy, metabolisable protein and amino acids, water, minerals and vitamins. Section 3 presents the use of concepts and equations in rationing with two purposes: (1) diet calculation for a given performance objective; and (2) prediction of the multiple responses of animal to diet changes. Section 4 displays the tables of feed values, and their prevision. (издателят)
Предметни рубрики: преживни животни – хранене
Област на знанието: Отглеждане и развъждане на насекоми и други членестоноги
В книгата са представени учените и дейците в областта на бубарската наука в България от XIX век до наши дни, както следва: първите просветители в областта на бубарството; ръководители и научни работници в ОСБЗ – Враца; ръководители и научни работници в БИКС – Харманли; специалисти с висше и средно образование – преподаватели във Висши учебни заведения. Автобиографичните данни и информация за научната продукция на учените по бубарство след 1960 година са ни предоставени от самите автори, за което им благодарим. За написване на книгата сме ползвали сведения от Селскостопанска Библиотека град София, Националния Земеделски Музей град София, Регионалната Библиотека град Враца, Държавен Архив град Враца, както и произведения на изтъкнати учени по бубарство и др. (из Предговор)
Предметни рубрики: бубарство – учени – България
Област на знанието: Езикознание
Natova, Ivanka. English for students of agronomy and plant protection : with key and audios in CD-ROM, 2017.
The given assessment criteria focus the attention of students and teachers on important aspects of the speaking and writing activities. Writing assessment criteria: Content corresponding to the given topic or questions – 1 point; Style, corresponding to the given requirements (formats, semi-formal or informal) and to the requirements for writing the repective type of composition (email/memo/proposal/expository essay/description/etc.) – 1 point; Organisation (a good division into paragraphs, logical ordering, using connecting words such as on the one hand, … but on the oter hand, … and using a mix of short and long sentences) – 1 point; Using rich and correct vocabulary – 1 point; Using rich and correct grammar – 1 point; Dialogic speaking assessment criteria: Development of all of the given topics and relevant answers – 1 point; Balance in the number of questions and new topics per person – 1 point; Concrete and original answers – 1 point; Grammatical correctness – 1 point; Good pronunciation and understandable speaking – 1 point; Natural presentation (not reading) – 1 point. (the author)
Предметни рубрики: английски език – учебници ; агрономство ; растителна защита